Lydia Liu, “Writing” in W.J.T. Mitchell and Mark B.N. Hansen (eds.) Critical Terms for Media Studies (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

Vilem Flusser, “Line and Surface”, “The Future of Writing”, and "On the End of History" in Strohl (ed.), Eisel (trans.), writings (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002).

Friedrich Kittler, “Gramophone, Film, Typewriter” in Literature, Media, Information Systems.